APBS

Early Childhood: References


The references or source material associated with this website do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS) nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by APBS.


  • Baker-Ericzén, M. J., Stahmer, A. C., & Burns, A. (2007). Child demographics associated with outcomes in a community-based pivotal response training program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 52-60. doi:10.1177/10983007070090010601

  • Baggett, K. M., & Carta, J. J. (2006). Using assessments to guide social-emotional intervention for very young children: An individual growth and development indicator (IGDI) of parent-child interaction. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 8, 67-76.

  • Benedict, E. A., Horner, R. H., & Squires, J. K. (2007). Assessment and implementation of positive behavior support in preschools. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 27(3), 174-192. DOI: 10.1177/02711214070270030801 http://tec.sagepub.com/content/27/3/174.full.pdf

  • Blair, K. C., Fox, L., and Lentini, R. (2010). Use of positive behavior support to address challenging behavior of young children within a community early childhood program. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30, 68-79. doi: 10.1177/0271121410372676

  • Blair, K. C., Umbreit, J., & Eck, S. (2000). Analysis of multiple variables related to a young child's aggressive behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(1), 33-39. doi:10.1177/109830070000200105

  • Buschbacher, P. W. (2002). Positive behavior support for a young child who has experienced neglect and abuse: Testimonials of a family member and professionals. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Special Section on Urban Issues, 4(4), 242-248. doi:10.1177/10983007020040040701

  • Buschbacher, P. W., & Fox, L. (2003). Understanding and intervening with the challenging behavior of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34(3), 217-227.

  • Buschbacher, P., Fox, L., & Clarke, M. (2004). Recapturing desired family routines: A parent-professional behavioral collaboration. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29, 25-39.


  • Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., Luze, G. J., Cline, G., & Kuntz, S. (2004). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in social skills for infants and toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention, 26, 91-114.

  • Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Adding function-based behavioral support to first step to success: Integrating individualized and manualized practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 22-34. doi:10.1177/1098300708319125

  • Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2007). Adding functional behavioral assessment to first step to success: A case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 229-238. doi:10.1177/10983007070090040501

  • Carter, D. R., & Van Norman, R. K. (2010). Class-wide positive behavior support in preschool: Improving teacher implementation through consultation. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38, 279-288.

  • Charlop-Christy, M. H., & Daneshvar, S. (2003). Using video modeling to teach perspective taking to children with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 12-21. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010101

  • Cheatham, G., & Santos, R. M. (2005). A-B-C's of bridging home and school expectations for children and families of diverse backgrounds. Young Exceptional Children, 8(3), 3-11.

  • Conroy, M. A., Asmus, J. M., & Sellers, J. A. (2005). Using an antecedent-based intervention to decrease automatically reinforced stereotypic behavior in a general education classroom. Focus on Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20(4), 223-230.

  • Conroy, M. A., & Brown, W. H. (2004). Early identification, prevention, and early intervention with young children at-risk for emotional/behavioral disorders: Issues, trends, and a call for action. Behavioral Disorders, 29(3), 224-236.

  • Conroy, M. A., Brown, W. H., & Olive, M. L. (2008). Social competence interventions for young children with challenging behavior. In W. H. Brown, S. L. Odom, & S. R. McConnell (Eds.), Social competence of young children: Risk, disability, and evidence-based practices (2nd ed.) (pp. 205-231). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Conroy, M. A., Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., & Alter, P. (2005). A descriptive analysis of positive behavioral intervention research with young children with challenging behavior. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 25(3), 157-166. DOI: 10.1177/02711214050250030301

  • Conroy, M., Hendrickson, J. M., & Hester, P. P. (2004). Early identification and prevention of emotional and behavioral disorders. In R. Rutherford, M. Quinn, & S. Mathur (Eds.), Handbook of research in behavior disorders (pp. 199-215). New York: Guilford Press.

  • Cunningham, E. & O’Neill, R. E. (2000). Comparison of results of functional assessment and analysis methods with young children with Autism. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 35, 406-414.


  • D'Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 5-11. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010801

  • Duda, M., Clarke, S., Fox, L. & Dunlap, G. (2008). Implementation of positive behavior support with a sibling set in the home environment. Journal of Early Intervention, 30, 213-236.

  • Duda, M. A., Dunlap, G., Fox, L., Lentini, R., & Clarke, S. (2004). An experimental evaluation of positive behavior support in a community preschool program. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24, 143-155.

  • Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., & Steiner, M. (1999). Intervention research in behavioral and developmental disabilities: 1980-1997. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 170-180. doi:10.1177/109830079900100305

  • Dunlap, G., Ester, T., Langhans, S., & Fox, L. (2006). Functional communication training with toddlers in home environments Journal of Early Intervention, 29, 81-97.

  • Dunlap, G. & Fox, L. (1999). A demonstration of behavioral support for young children with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, 77-87.

  • Dunlap, G., & Fox, L. (2007). Parent-professional partnerships: A valuable context for addressing challenging behaviors. International Journal of Development, Disability and Education, 54, 273-285.

  • Dunlap, G., & Fox, L. (2009). Positive behavior support and early intervention. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 49-72). New York: Springer.

  • Dunlap, G., Strain, P. S., Fox, L., Carta, J., Conroy, M., Smith, B., ... Sowell, C. (2006). Prevention and intervention with young children's challenging behavior: A summary of current knowledge. Behavioral Disorders, 32, 29-45.

  • Dunlap, G., Wilson, K., & Strain, P. (2013). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce for young children: The early childhood model of individualized positive behavior support with CD-ROM. Brookes.

  • DuPaul, G. J., & Kern, L. (2004). Preventing problems in young children with ADHD. Attention! October, 28-33.


  • Erbas, D., Yucesoy, S., Turan, Y., & Ostrosky, M. M. (2006). Turkish special education teachers' implementation of functional analysis in classroom settings. Education and Treatment of Mental Retardation, 41(2), 155-162.

  • Erwin, E., Soodak, L., Winton, P., & Turnbull, A. (2001). "I wish it wouldn't all depend upon me": Research on families and early childhood inclusion. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), Early childhood inclusion: Focus on change (pp. 127-158). Baltimore: Brookes.


  • Feeney, T. J., & Ylvisaker, M. (2008). Context-sensitive cognitive-behavioral supports for young children with TBI: A second replication study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(2), 115-128. doi:10.1177/1098300707312540

  • Forest, E. J., Horner, R. H., Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A. W., & McGee, G. (2004). Transitions for young children with Autism from preschool to kindergarten. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(2), 103-112. doi:10.1177/10983007040060020501

  • Forness, S., Walker, H., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2003). Assessment and local child outcomes in the social and emotional domain. NHSA Dialogue, 6(2), 268-279.

  • Fox, L., Carta, J., Dunlap, G., Strain, P., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2010). Response to intervention and the Pyramid Model. Infants and Young Children, 23, 3-14.

  • Fox, L., & Clarke, S. (2006). Aggression? Using positive behavior support to address challenging behavior. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 8, 42-56.

  • Fox, L., Dunlap, G., & Benito, N. (2001). Vincent's story: From Head Start to fourth grade. Beyond Behavior, 11(1), 5-6.

  • Fox, L., Dunlap, G., & Cushing, L. (2002). Early intervention, positive behavior support, and transition to school. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 149-157.

  • Fox, L., Dunlap, G., Hemmeter, M. L., Joseph, G. E., & Strain, P. S. (2003). The teaching pyramid: A model for supporting social competence and preventing challenging behavior in young children. Young Children, July 2003, 48-52.

  • Fox, L., Dunlap, G., & Powell, D. (2002). Young children with challenging behavior: Issues and considerations for behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Special Section on Urban Issues, 4(4), 208-217. doi:10.1177/10983007020040040401

  • Fox, L., Dunlap, G., & Philbrick, L. A. (1997). Providing individualized supports to young children with Autism and their families. Journal of Early Intervention, 21, 1-14.

  • Fox, L., Dunlap, G., & Powell, D. (2002). Young children with challenging behavior: Issues and considerations for behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(4), 208-217.

  • Fox, L. & Hanline, M. F. (1993). A preliminary evaluation of learning within developmentally appropriate early childhood settings. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 13, 308-327.

  • Fox, L., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2009). A program-wide model for supporting social emotional development and addressing challenging behavior in early childhood settings. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 177-202). New York: Springer.

  • Fox, L., & Lentini, R. (2006). You got it! Teaching social and emotional skills. Young Children, 61(6), 36-42.

  • Fox, L., & Little, N. (2001). Starting early: Developing school-wide behavior support in a community preschool. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(4), 251-254. doi:10.1177/109830070100300406

  • Fox, L., Vaughn, B. J., Wyatte, M. L., & Dunlap, G. (2002). "We can't expect other people to understand": Family perspectives on problem behavior, Exceptional Children, 68(4), 437-450.

  • Frea, W. D., Arnold, C. L., & Vittimberga, G. L. (2001). A demonstration of the effects of augmentative communication on the extreme aggressive behavior of a child with Autism within an integrated preschool setting. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(4), 194-198. doi:10.1177/109830070100300401


  • Grisham-Brown, J., Hemmeter, M. L., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. (2005). Blending practices for teaching young children in inclusive settings. Baltimore: Brookes.


  • Halle, J. W., Ostrosky, M. M., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2006). Functional communication training. In R. A. McCauley & M. Fey (Eds.), Treatment of language disorders in children: Conventional and controversial treatments. (pp. 509-545). Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Hawken, L. & Horner, R. (2003). Evaluation of a targeted group intervention within a school-wide system of behavior support, Journal of Behavioral Education, 12, 225-240.

  • Hawken, L. & Johnston, S. (2007). Preventing severe problem behavior in young children: The Behavior Education Program. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 4, 599-613.

  • Hawken, L., Johnston, S. & McDonnell, A. (2005). Emerging literacy views and practices of Head Start preschool teachers, Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 25, 232-242.

  • Hawken, L. & O’Neill, R. (2006). Including students with severe disabilities at all levels of school-wide positive behavioral support. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31, 46-53.

  • Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2008). Supporting teachers in promoting children's social competence and addressing challenging behavior. In P. J. Winton, J. A. McCollum, & C. Catlett (Eds.), Practical approaches to early childhood professional development: Evidence, strategies, and resources (pp. 119-142). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

  • Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2009). The Teaching Pyramid: A model for the implementation of classroom practices within a program-wide approach to behavior support. NHSA Dialogue, 12(2), 133-147.

  • Hemmeter, M. L., Fox, L., & Doubet, S. (2006). Together we can: An early childhood center's program wide approach to addressing challenging behavior. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 8, 1-14

  • Hemmeter, M. L., Fox, L., Jack, S., Broyles, L., & Doubet, S. (2007). A program-wide model of positive behavior support in early childhood settings. Journal of Early Intervention, 29, 337-355.

  • Hemmeter, M. L., Ostrosky, M., Artman, K., & Kinder, K. (2008). Moving right along: Planning transitions to prevent challenging behavior. Young Children, 63(3), 18-25.

  • Hemmeter, M. L., Ostrosky, M., & Fox, L. (2006). Social and emotional foundations for early learning: A conceptual model for intervention. School Psychology Review, 35, 583-601.

  • Hemmeter, M. L., Santos, R., & Ostrosky, M. (2008). A national survey of higher education programs: Preparing early childhood educators to address social emotional development and challenging behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 30(4), 321-340.

  • Hieneman, M., Dunlap, G., & Kincaid, D. (2005). Positive support strategies for students with behavioral disorders in general education settings. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 779-794.

  • Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Strain, P. S., Todd, A. W., and Reed, H. K. (2002). Problem behavior interventions for young children with Autism: A research synthesis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 423-446.

  • Hundert, J. P. (2007). Training classroom and resource preschool teachers to develop inclusive class interventions for children with disabilities: Generalization to new intervention targets. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(3), 159-173. doi:10.1177/10983007070090030401

  • Hunter, A., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2009). The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing challenging behaviors in infants and toddlers. Zero to Three, 29(3), 5-12.


  • Ingersoll, B., & Dvortcsak, A. (2006). Including parent training in the early childhood special education curriculum for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 79-87. doi:10.1177/10983007060080020601


  • Johnston, S., McDonnell, A., & Hawken, L. (2008). Enhancing outcomes in early literacy for young children with disabilities: Strategies for success. Intervention in School and Clinic, 42, 210-217.

  • Jolivette, K., Peck-Stichter, J., Scott, T. M., Ridgley, R., & Siblinsky, S. (2002). Naturally occurring opportunities for preschool children with or at-risk for disabilities to make choices. Education and Treatment of Children, 25, 396-414.

  • Joseph, G. E., & Strain, P. S. (2002) Building positive relationships with young children. Young Exceptional Children, 7(4), 21-28.

  • Joseph, G. E., & Strain, P. S. (2002). Helping young children control anger and handle disappointment. Young Exceptional Children, 7(1), 21-29.

  • Joseph, G. E., & Strain, P. S. (2003). Comprehensive evidence-based social-emotional curricula for young children: An analysis of efficacious adoption potential. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23(2), 65-76.

  • Joseph, G. E., & Strain, P. S. (2003). Enhancing emotional vocabulary in young children. Young Exceptional Children, 6(4), 18-26.


  • Kinney, E. M., Vedora, J., & Stromer, R. (2003). Computer-presented video models to teach generative spelling to a child with an Autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 22-29. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010301

  • Kleeberger, V., & Mirenda, P. (2010). Teaching generalized imitation skills to a preschooler With Autism using video modeling. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 116-127. doi:10.1177/1098300708329279

  • Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Nefdt, N., Fredeen, R., Klein, E. F., & Bruinsma, Y. E. M. (2005). First S.T.E.P: A model for the early identification of children with Autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 247-252. doi:10.1177/10983007050070040601


  • McGrath, A. M., Bosch, S., Sullivan, C. L., & Fuqua, R. W. (2003). Training reciprocal social interactions between preschoolers and a child with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 47-54. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010701

  • McLaren, E. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2009). Using functional behavior assessment to develop behavior interventions for students in head start. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 3-21. doi:10.1177/1098300708318960

  • Meadan, H., Halle, J. W., Ostrosky, M. M. & DeStefano, L. (2008). Communicative behavior in the natural environment: Case studies of two young children with Autism and limited expressive language. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders, 23, 37-48.

  • Meadan, H., Ostrosky, M. M., & Halle, J. W. (2006). What? I don't understand. Pardon?: The use of communication breakdowns to encourage communication. Young Exceptional Children, 9(3), 2-9.


  • Odom, S. L., Brown, W. H., Frey, T., Karasu, N., Smith-Canter, L. L., & Strain, P. S. (2003). Evidence-based practices for young children with Autism: Contributions for single-subject design research. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18(3), 166-175.

  • Ostrosky, M. M., Gaffney, J. S., & Thomas, D. V. (2006). The interplay of building literacy and relationships for young children. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 22, 173-191.


  • Powell, D., Dunlap, G., & Fox, L. (2006). Prevention and intervention for the challenging behaviors of toddlers and preschoolers. Infants and Young Children, 19, 25-35.

  • Powell, D., Fixsen, D., & Dunlap, G. (2007). A synthesis of knowledge relevant to pathways of service delivery for young children with or at risk of challenging behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 29, 81-106.


  • Santistevan-Matthews, P., Hawken, L., Burrow-Sanchez, J., Fields, M. & Peterson, P. (2007). Preservice special education service providers' attitudes on diversity. Multicultural Learning and Teaching, 2(1), 1-50.

  • Schepis, M. M., Ownbey, J. B., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (2000). Training support staff for teaching young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool setting. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3), 170-178. doi:10.1177/109830070000200305

  • Sprague, J., & Perkins, K. (2009). Direct and collateral effects of the first step to success program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(4), 208-221. doi:10.1177/1098300708330935

  • Stahmer, A. C., Ingersoll, B., & Koegel, R. L. (2004). Inclusive programming for toddlers Autism spectrum disorders: Outcomes from the children's toddler school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(2), 67-82. doi:10.1177/10983007040060020201

  • Stormont, M., Lewis, T. J., & Beckner, R. (2005). Positive behavior support systems: Applying key features in preschool settings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 37, 42-49.

  • Stormont, M. A., Lewis, T., Beckner, R. S., & Johnson, N. (2007). Implementing positive behavior support systems in early childhood and elementary settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

  • Stormont, M., Lewis, T. J., & Smith, S. C. (2005). Behavior support strategies in early childhood settings: Teachers' importance and feasibility ratings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(3), 131-139. doi:10.1177/10983007050070030201

  • Strain, P. S., & Joseph, G. E. (2003). Engaged supervision to support evidence-based practices for young children with challenging behavior. In M.A. Conroy (Ed.), Prevention and early intervention for young children at risk for emotional or behavioral disorder. Reston: CCBD.

  • Strain, P. E., & Joseph, G. E. (2004). Engaged supervision to support recommended practices for young children with challenging behavior. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24, 39-50.

  • Strain, P. S. & Joseph, G. E. (2006). You got to have friends. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 8, 1-22.

  • Strain, P. S., Joseph, G., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2009). Young children's problem behavior: Impact intervention and innovations. Early Childhood Services, 3, 1-14.

  • Strain, P. S., & Schwartz, I. (2009). Positive behavior support and early intervention for young children with Autism: Case studies on the efficacy of proactive treatment of problem behavior. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, and R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 107-124). New York: Springer.

  • Strain, P. S., Schwartz, I., & Bovey E., (2007). Social skills intervention for young children with Autism: Programmatic research findings and implementation issues. In S. Odom, S. McConnell and W. Brown (Eds.), Social competence of young children: Risk, disability, & intervention. Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Symon, J. B. (2005). Expanding interventions for children with Autism: Parents as trainers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(3), 159-173. doi:10.1177/10983007050070030501


  • Tyrrell, A. L., Freeman, R. L., and Chambers, C. R. (2006). Family perceptions of problem behavior: Strategies for effective support. In E. Horn and H. Jones (Eds.), Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series No 8: Social Emotional Development. Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood of Council for Exceptional Children.

  • Tyrrell, A. L., Horn, E. M., and Freeman, R. L. (2006). The role of families in the positive behavior support process: Team-based problem solving. Young Exceptional Children, 10(1), 12-21.


  • Wehmeyer, M. L., and Palmer, S. (2000). Promoting the acquisition and development of self-determination in young children with disabilities. Early Education and Development, 11, 465-481.

  • Wert, B. Y., & Neisworth, J. T. (2003). Effects of video self-modeling on spontaneous requesting in children with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 30-34. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010501

  • Wood, B. K., Ferro, J. B., Umbreit, J., & Liaupsin, C. J. (2011). Challenging behavior of young children through systematic function-based intervention. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30, 221-232.


APBS New Logo Site Help | Site Map | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | ©2007-2014 Association for Positive Behavior Support

Back to Top