APBS

Response to Intervention: References


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Response to Intervention References

  • Algozzine, B., & Algozzine, K. M., (2009). Facilitating academic achievement through schoolwide positive behavior support. In W. Sailor G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. H. Horner (Eds), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 521-550). NewYork: Springer.


  • Barnett, D. W., Daly, E. J., Jones, K. M., & Lentz, F. E. (2004). Response-to-intervention: Empirically based special service decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. The Journal of Special Education, 38, 66-79.

  • Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Doolittle, J. (2007). Responsiveness to intervention: 1997 to 2007. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 8-12.

  • Bradley, R., Danielson, L. C., & Hallahan, D. P. (2002). Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Washington, DC: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Burns, M. K., Appleton, J. J., & Stehouwer, J. D. (2005). Meta-analytic review of responsiveness-to-intervention research: Examining field-based and research-implemented models. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23, 381-394.


  • Chalfant, J. C., Pysh, M. V., & Moultrie, R. (1979). Teacher assistance teams: A model for within-building problem solving. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 2, 85-95.

  • Christ, T. J., Burns, M. K., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2005). Conceptual confusion within response-to-intervention vernacular: Clarifying meaningful differences. Communiqué, 34, 1-2.

  • Clark, E. R. (1988). The state of the art in research on teacher training models with special reference to bilingual education teachers. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition.

  • Cronbach, L. J. (1975). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671-684.


  • Deno, S. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52, 219-232.

  • Deno, S., & Mirkin, P. (1977). Data-based program modification. Minneapolis, MN: Leadership Training Institute for Special Education.

  • Donovan M. S., & Cross, C. T. (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


  • Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, D., & Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention: Examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Exceptional Children, 73, 288-310.

  • Fletcher, J. M., Coulter, A. W., Reschly, D. J., & Vaughn, S. (2004). Alternative approaches to the definition and identification of learning disabilities: Some questions and answers. Annals of Dyslexia, 54(2), 304-332.

  • Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Barnes, M., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Olson, R. K., & Shaywitz, S. E. (2002). Classification of learning disabilities: An evidence-based evaluation. In R. Bradley, L. Danielson, & D. P. Hallahan (Eds.), Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, (pp. 185-250. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Flugum, K. R., & Reschly, D. J. (1994). Prereferral interventions: Quality indices and outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 32(1), 1-14.

  • Fox, L., Carta, J., Dunlap, G., Strain, P., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2010). Response to intervention and the Pyramid Model. Infants and Young Children, 23, 3-14.

  • Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Compton, D. L. (2004). Identifying reading disability by responsiveness-to-instruction: Specifying measures and criteria. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 216-227.

  • Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Bahr, M. W. (1990). Mainstream assistance teams: A scientific basis for the art of consultation. Exceptional Children, 57(2), 128-139.

  • Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S. & Compton, D. L. (2004). Identifying reading disabilities by responsiveness to instruction: Specifying measure and criteria. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 216-227.

  • Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18, 157-172.

  • Fuchs, L. S. (1986). Monitoring progress among mildly handicapped pupils: Review of current practice and research. Remedial and Special Education, 7(5), 5-12.

  • Fuchs, L. S. (1989). Evaluating solutions: Monitoring progress and revising intervention plans. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.), Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children, (pp. 153-181). New York: Guilford Press.

  • Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 172-187.

  • Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation on student achievement: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53, 199-208.

  • Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect? School Psychology Review, 22(1), 27-49.

  • Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2004). Determining adequate yearly progress from kindergarten through grade 6 with curriculum-based measurement. Assessment for Effective Instruction, 29(4), 25-38.

  • Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Speece, D. L. (2002). Treatment validity as a unifying construct for identifying learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 33-46.


  • Good, R. H., Gruba, J., & Kaminski, R. A. (2002). Best practices in using dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills (DIEBLS) in an outcomes-driven model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV, (pp. 669-720). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

  • Gravois, T. A., & Rosenfield, S. A. (2006). Impact of instructional consultation teams on the disproportionate placement of minority students in special education. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 42-52.

  • Gresham, F. M. (1991). Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention. School Psychology Review, 20, 23-36.

  • Gresham, F. M. (2002). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. In R. Bradley, L. Danielson, & D. P. Hallahan (Eds.), Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, (pp. 467-519). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Gresham, F. M. (2005). Response to intervention: An alternative means of identifying students as emotionally disturbed. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, 328-344.

  • Gresham, F. M., Reschly, D. J., Tilly, W. D., Fletcher, J., Burns, M., Christ, T., ... & Shinn, M. (2005). Comprehensive evaluation of learning disabilities: A response to intervention perspective. The School Psychologist, 59(1), 26-33.


  • Hartman, W. T., & Fay, T. A. (1996). Cost-effectiveness of instructional support teams in Pennsylvania. Journal of Education Finance, 21(4), 555-580.

  • Heller, K. A., Holtzman, W. H., & Messick, S. (Eds.). (1982). Placing children in special education: A strategy for equity. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

  • Hosp, J. L., & Reschly, D. J. (2004). State SLD identification policies and practices. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(4), 197-214.

  • Howell, K. W. (1991). Curriculum-based evaluation: What you think is what you get. Diagnostique, 16(4), 193-202.

  • Howell, K., & Nolet, V. (2000). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.


  • Ikeda, M., Grimes, J., Tilly III, W. D., Allison, R., Kurns, S., & Stumme, J. (2002). Implementing an intervention-based approach to service delivery: A case example. In M. R. Shinn, G. Stoner & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavioral problems II (pp. 53-70). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.


  • Kame’enui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (1998). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Kame’enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (1998). Beyond effective practice to schools as host environments: Building and sustaining a school-wide intervention model in reading. OSSC Bulletin, 41(3), 3-24.

  • Kame’enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (2002). Planning and evaluation tool for effective schoolwide reading programs-Revised (PET-R). Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.

  • Kaminski, R. A., & Good, R. (1996). Toward a technology for assessing basic early literacy skills. School Psychology Review, 25, 215-228.

  • Kavale, K. A. & Forness, S. R. (1999). Effectiveness of special education. In C. R. Reynolds & T. B. Gutkin (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology (3rd ed.), (pp. 984-1024). New York: Wiley.

  • Kavale, K. A., & Spaulding, L. S. (2008). Is response to intervention good policy for specific learning disability? Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 23, 169-179.

  • Kern, L., Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., & Childs, K. E. (1994). Student-assisted functional assessment interview. Diagnostique, 19, 29-39.

  • Kovaleski, J. F., & Glew, M. C. (2006). Bringing instructional support teams to scale: Implications of the Pennsylvania experience. Remedial and Special Education, 27(1), 16-25.

  • Kovaleski, J. G., Gickling, E. E., Morrow, H., & Swank, P. (1999). High versus low implementation of instructional support teams: A case for maintaining program fidelity. Remedial and Special Education, 20, 170-183.


  • Lembke, E. S., McMaster, K. L., & Stecker, P. M. (2010). The prevention science of reading research within a response-to-intervention model. Psychology in the Schools, 47(1), 22 - 35.

  • Lindsley, O. R. (1972). From Skinner to precision teaching: The child knows best. In J. B. Jordan & L. S. Robbins (Eds.), Let's try doing something else kind of thing. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

  • Llewellyn, G., & Knoster, T. (1997). Screening for understanding of student problem behavior: An initial line of inquiry. Instructional Support System of Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Education.

  • Lovitt, T. C. (1967). Assessment of children with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 233-239.

  • Lyon, R. (1994). Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. Baltimore: Brookes.


  • McIntosh, K., Brown, J. A., & Borgmeier, C. J. (2008). Validity of functional behavior assessment within an RTI framework: Evidence and future directions. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 34, 6-14.

  • McIntosh, K., Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(4), 243-255.

  • McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Good, R. H. (2006). The use of reading and behavior screening measures to predict non-response to school-wide positive behavior support: A longitudinal analysis. School Psychology Review, 35, 275-291.


  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

  • National Staff Development Council. (2001). Standards for staff development (Revised). Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council.

  • Nelson, J. R., Martella, R. M., & Marchand-Martella, N. (2002). Maximizing student learning: The effects of a comprehensive school-based program for preventing problem behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 136-148.


  • Ostrosky, M. M., Gaffney, J. S., & Thomas, D. V. (2006). The interplay of building literacy and relationships for young children. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 22, 173-191.


  • Peterson, K. M. H., & Shinn, M. R. (2002). Severe discrepancy models: Which best explains school identification practices for learning disabilities? School Psychology Review, 31(4), 459-477.


  • Reschly, D. J. (2005). Learning disabilities identification: Primary intervention, secondary intervention, and then what? Journal of Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(6), 510-515.

  • Reschly, D. J., & Hosp, J. L. (2004). State SLD policies and practices. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(4), 197-213.

  • Reschly, D. J., Tilly III, W. D., & Grimes, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

  • Reschly, D. J. & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2002). Paradigm shift: The past is not the future. In A. Thomas and J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV, (pp. 3-20). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

  • Rosenfield, S. A., & Gravois, T. A. (1996). Instructional consultation teams: Collaborating for change. New York: Guilford Press.


  • Sailor, W., Doolittle, J., Bradley, R., & Danielson, L. (2009). Response to intervention and positive behavior support. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 729-753). New York: Springer.

  • Schmoker, M. (2002). Results: The key to continuous school improvement (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

  • Shinn, M. (Ed.) (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Shinn, M. R. (2002). Best practices in using curriculum-based measurement in a problem-solving model. In Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV, (pp. 671-697). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

  • Showers, B. (1984). Peer Coaching: A strategy for facilitation transfer of training. Eugene, OR: Center for Educational Policy and Management.

  • Showers, B., Joyce, B., & Bennett, B. (1987). Synthesis of research on staff development: A framework for future study and state-of-the-art analysis. Educational Leadership, 45(3), 77-87.

  • Speece, D. L., Case, L. P., & Molloy, D. E. (2003). Responsiveness to general education instruction as the first gate to learning disabilities identification. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 147-156.

  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2009). Responsiveness-to-intervention and school-wide positive behavior supports: Integration of multi-tiered system approaches. Exceptionality, 17, 223-237.

  • Sugai, G, Horner, R. H., & Gresham, F. (2002). Behaviorally effective school environments. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventative and remedial approaches, (pp. 315-350). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.


  • Tilly III, W. D. (2002). School Psychology as a problem solving enterprise. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV, 25-36. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

  • Tilly III, W. D., Reschly, D. J., & Grimes, J. P. (1999). Disability determination in problem solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components. In D. J. Reschly, W. D. Tilly III, & J. P. Grimes (Eds.), Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

  • Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. S., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58.


  • Vaugh Gross Center for Preventing Reading Difficulties. (2005). Preventing reading difficulties: A three-tiered intervention model, description available at http://www.meadowscenter.org/library/resource/implementing-the-3-tier-reading-model-reducing-reading-difficulties-for-k-3.

  • Vaughn, S. & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: The promise and potential problems. Learning Disabilities Policy and Practice, 18(3), 137-147.

  • Vaughn, S. Gersten, R., & Chard, D. J. (2000). The underlying message in LD intervention research: Findings from research syntheses. Exceptional Children, 67, 99-114.

  • Vaughn, S., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2003). What is special about special education for students with learning disabilities? Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 140-147.

  • Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman-Davis, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69(4), 391-409.

  • Vellutino, F., Scanlon, D., Sipay, E., Small, S., Pratt, A., Chen, R., & Denikia, M. (1996). Cognitive profiles or difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as a basic causes of specific reading disability, Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 601-638.


  • Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 194-209.


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