APBS

Schools and Districts: References


The references or source material associated with this website do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS) nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by APBS.


School-wide PBS References

Is School-wide Positive Behavior Support an Evidence-based Practice?

TA Center Research List

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Blueprint


  • Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2009). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  • Algozzine, B., & Algozzine, K. M. (2009). Facilitating academic achievement through schoolwide positive behavior support. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 521-55). NewYork: Springer.

  • Algozzine, B., Daunic, A. P., & Smith, S. W. (2010). Preventing problem behaviors: Schoolwide programs and classroom practices (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

  • Algozzine, B., Kay, P. (2002). Preventing Problem Behaviors: A Handbook of Successful Prevention Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

  • Anderson, A. R., Christenson, S. L., & Sinclair, M. F. (2004). Check & Connect: The importance of relationships for promoting school engagement. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 95-113.

  • Anderson, C. M. & Kincaid, D. (2005). Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: School-wide positive behavior support. The Behavior Analyst, 28, 49-63.

  • Anderson, C. M. & Warzak, W. J. (2000). Using positive behavior support to facilitate the classroom adaptation of children with brain injuries. Proven Practice: Prevention and Remediation Solutions for Schools, 2, 72-82.

  • Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152-158. doi:10.1177/109830079900100303

  • Artesani, A. J., & Mallar, L. (1998). Positive behavior support in general education settings: Combining person-centered planning and functional analysis. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(1), 33-38.

  • Atkins, M. S., McKay, M. M., Frazier, S. L., Jakobsons, L. J., Arvanitis, P., Cunningham, T., ... Lambrecht, L. (2002). Suspensions and detentions in an urban, low-income school: Punishment or reward? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 361-371.


  • Ballard-Krishnan, S. A., McClure, L., Schmatz, B., Travnikar, B., Friedrich, G., & Nolan, M. (2003). The Michigan PBS initiative: Advancing the spirit of collaboration by including parents in the delivery of personnel development opportunities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 122-126. doi:10.1177/10983007030050020701

  • Bambara, L. M., Nonnemacher, S., & Kern, L. (2009). Sustaining school-based individualized positive behavior support: Perceived barriers and enablers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 161-176. doi:10.1177/1098300708330878

  • Barrett, S. B., Bradshaw, C. P., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2008). Maryland statewide PBIS initiative: Systems, evaluation, and next steps. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(2), 105-114. doi:10.1177/1098300707312541

  • Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 119-124.

  • Barry, L. M., & Messer, J. J. (2003). A practical application of self-management for students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 238-248. doi:10.1177/10983007030050040701

  • Bohanon, H., Fenning, P., Carney, K.L., Minnis-Kim, M.J., Anderson-Harriss, S., Moroz, K.B., ... Piggott, T.D. (2006). Schoolwide application of positive behavior support in an urban high school: A case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(3), 131-145.

  • Blonigan, B. A., Harbaugh, W., Singell, L., Horner, R. H., Irvin, L. K., & Smolkowski, K. (2008). Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) programs. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 5-19. doi:10.1177/1098300707311366

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Buckley, J., & Ialongo, N. (2008). School-based service utilization among urban children with early-onset educational and mental health problems: The squeaky wheel phenomenon. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 169 - 186.

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Debnam, K., Koth, C. W., & Leaf, P. (2009). Preliminary validation of the implementation phases inventory for assessing fidelity of schoolwide positive behavior supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 145-160. doi:10.1177/1098300708319126

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, K., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 462- 473.

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10, 100 - 115.

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133-148. doi:10.1177/1098300709334798

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., O'Brennan, L. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Multilevel exploration of factors contributing to the overrepresentation of Black students in office disciplinary referrals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 508 - 520.

  • Brooks, A., Todd, A. W., Tofflemoyer, S., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Use of functional assessment and a self-management system to increase academic engagement and work completion. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(3), 144-152. doi:10.1177/10983007030050030301

  • Brown, F., & Michaels, C. A. (2006). School-wide positive behavior support initiatives and students with severe disabilities: A time for reflection. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 57-61.

  • Buggey, T. (2007). A picture is worth . . . video self-modeling applications at school and home. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(3), 151-158. doi:10.1177/10983007070090030301

  • Buggey, T., Toombs, K., Gardener, P., & Cervetti, M. (1999). Training responding behaviors in students with Autism: Using videotaped self-modeling. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(4), 205-214. doi:10.1177/109830079900100403


  • Callahan, K., & Rademacher, J. A. (1999). Using self-management strategies to increase the on-task behavior of a student with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(2), 117-122. doi:10.1177/109830079900100206

  • Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Adding function-based behavioral support to first step to success: Integrating individualized and manualized practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 22-34. doi:10.1177/1098300708319125

  • Carr, E. G. (2006). SWPBS: The greatest good for the greatest number, or the needs of the majority trump the needs of the minority? Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 54-56.

  • Chafouleas, S. M., Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Sassu, K. A. (2006). Acceptability and reported use of daily behavior report cards among teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(3), 174-182. doi:10.1177/10983007060080030601

  • Chafouleas, S. M., Riley-Tillman, T. C., Sassu, K. A., LaFrance, M. J., & Patwa, S. S. (2007). Daily behavior report cards: An investigation of the consistency of on-task data across raters and methods. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 30-37. doi:10.1177/10983007070090010401

  • Chapman, D. & Hofweber, C. (2000). Effective behavior support in British Columbia. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 235-237.

  • Cheney, D., Blum, C., & Walker, B. (2004). An analysis of leadership teams' perceptions of positive behavior support and the outcomes of typically developing and at-risk students in their schools. Assessment-for-Effective-Intervention, 30, 7-24.

  • Cheney, D., Flower, A., & Templeton, T. (2008). Applying response to intervention metrics in the social domain for students at risk of developing emotional or behavioral disorders. The Journal of Special Education, 42, 108-126.

  • Cheney, D., Lynass, L., Flower, A., Waugh, M., Iwaszuk, W., Mielenz, C., & Hawken, L. (2010). The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A targeted, tier 2 intervention in the schoolwide positive behavior support model. Preventing School Failure, 54(3), 152-158. DOI: 10.1080/10459880903492742

  • Cheney, D., Stage, S., Hawken, L., Lynass, L., Mielenz, C., & Waugh, M. (2009). A two-year outcome study of the Check, Connect, and Expect intervention for students at-risk of severe behavior problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17, 226-243.

  • Clarke, S., & Dunlap, G. (2008). A descriptive analysis of intervention research published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: 1999 through 2005. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 67-71. doi:10.1177/1098300707311810

  • Cohen, R., Kincaid, D., & Childs, K. E. (2007). Measuring school-wide positive behavior support implementation: Development and validation of the benchmarks of quality. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 203-213.

  • Colvin, G. (2004). Managing the cycle of acting-out behavior in the classroom. Eugene, OR: Behavior Associates.

  • Colvin, G. (2007). 7 steps for developing a proactive schoolwide discipline plan: A guide for principals and leadership teams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

  • Colvin, G. (2009). Managing noncompliance and defiance in the classroom: A road map for teachers, specialists, and behavior support teams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

  • Colvin, G., & Fernandez, E. (2000). Sustaining effective behavior support systems in an elementary school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 251-253.

  • Colvin, G., Kame'enui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16(4), 361-381.

  • Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R. H., & Lee, Y. (1997). Effect of active supervision and precorrection on transition behaviors of elementary students. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 344-363.

  • Colvin, G., Tobin, T., Beard, K., Hagan, S., & Sprague, J. (1998). The school bully: Assessing the problem, developing interventions, and future research directions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8(3), 293-319.

  • Cowie H, & Olafsson R. (2000). The role of peer support in helping the victims of bullying in a school with high levels of aggression. School Psychology International, 21, 79-94.

  • Coyne, M. D., Simonsen, B. M., & Faggella-Luby, M. (2008). Cooperating initiatives: Supporting behavioral and academic improvement through a systems approach. Teaching Exceptional Children, Special Issue: Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, 40, 54-59.

  • Crimmins, D. C., & Farrell, A. F. (2006). Individualized behavioral supports at 15 years: It's still lonely at the top. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 3145.

  • Crone, D. A., Hawken, L. S., & Bergstrom, M. K. (2007). A demonstration of training, implementing, and using functional behavioral assessment in 10 elementary and middle school settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 15-29. doi:10.1177/10983007070090010301

  • Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Cushing, L. S., Horner, R. H., & Barrier, H. (2003). Validation and congruent validity of a direct observation tool to assess student social climate. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 225-237. doi:10.1177/10983007030050040601


  • De Pry, R. L., & Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and pre-correction on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 255 - 267.

  • Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., Poulin F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755-764.

  • Dooley, P., Wilczenski, F. L., & Torem, C. (2001). Using an activity schedule to smooth school transitions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 57-61. doi:10.1177/109830070100300108

  • Dunlap, G., Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Zarcone, J. R., & Schwartz, I. S. (2008). Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A familial alliance. Behavior Modification, 32, 682-698.

  • Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., & Steiner, M. (1999). Intervention research in behavioral and developmental disabilities: 1980-1997. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 170-180. doi:10.1177/109830079900100305

  • Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., & English, C. (2009). Prevent-teach-reinforce: The school-based model of individualized positive behavior support. Brookes.

  • Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Kincaid, D., Wilson, K., Christiansen, K., Strain, P., & English, C.,(2010). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A school-based model of positive behavior support. Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Wilson, K. J., Kincaid, D. K., & Strain, P. (2010). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A standardized model of school-based behavioral intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(1), 9-22. doi:10.1177/1098300708330880


  • Eisert, D., & Jensen, M. K. (2003). Victimization of girls in American society. Eugene, OR: Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior. http://ivdb.uoregon.edu/publications.html

  • Epstein, M. H., & Walker, H. M. (2002). Special education: Best practices and First Step to Success. In B. J. Burns & K. Hoagwood (Eds.), Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders (pp. 179-197). New York: Oxford University Press.


  • Fairbanks, S., Simonsen, B. M., & Sugai, G. (2008). Class-wide secondary and tertiary tier practices and supports. Teaching Exceptional Children, Special Issue: Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, 40, 44-52.

  • Feil, E. G., Severson, H. H., & Walker, H. M. (1998). Screening for emotional and behavioral delays: The early screening project. Journal of Early Intervention, 21(3), 252-266.

  • Feng, H., Lo, Y., Tsai, S., & Cartledge, G. (2008). The effects of theory-of-mind and social skill training on the social competence of a sixth-grade student with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(4), 228-242. doi:10.1177/1098300708319906

  • Filter, K. J., McKenna, M. K., Benedict, E., Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., & Watson, J. (2007). Check-in/check-out: A post-hoc evaluation of an efficient, secondary-level targeted intervention for reducing problem behaviors in schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 69-84.

  • Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2009). School-wide positive behavior support in high school: Early lessons learned. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 177-185. doi:10.1177/1098300708316257

  • Forest, E. J., Horner, R. H., Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A. W., & McGee, G. (2004). Transitions for young children with Autism from preschool to kindergarten. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(2), 103-112. doi:10.1177/10983007040060020501

  • Foster-Johnson, L., & Dunlap, G. (1993). Using functional assessment to develop effective, individualized interventions for challenging behaviors. Teaching Exceptional Children, 25, 44-50.

  • Fox, L., & Little, N. (2001). Starting early: Developing school-wide behavior support in a community preschool. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(4), 251-254. doi:10.1177/109830070100300406

  • Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 150-161. doi:10.1177/1098300708316260

  • Frea, W. D., Arnold, C. L., & Vittimberga, G. L. (2001). A demonstration of the effects of augmentative communication on the extreme aggressive behavior of a child with Autism within an integrated preschool setting. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(4), 194-198. doi:10.1177/109830070100300401

  • Freeman, R., Eber, L., Anderson, C., Irvin, L., Bounds, M., Dunlap, G. & Horner, R. H. (2006). Building inclusive school cultures using school-wide PBS: Designing effective individual support systems for students with significant disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 4-17.

  • Freeman, R., Lohrmann, S., Irvin, L. K., Kincaid, D., Vossler, V., & Ferro, J. (2009). Systems change and the complementary roles of inservice and preservice training in school-wide positive behavior support. In G. Sugai, R. Horner, G. Dunlap, & W. Sailor (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 599-626). New York: Springer.

  • Freeman, R. L., Smith, C. L., & Tieghi-Benet, M. (2003). Promoting implementation success through the use of continuous systems-level assessment strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 66-70. doi:10.1177/10983007030050020101

  • Frey, A., & Walker, H. (2005). Education policy for children, youth, and families. In J. M. Jenson & M. W. Fraser (Eds.), Social policy for children and families: A risk and resilience perspective (pp. 67-81). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/5976 Chapter 3 Jenson Fraser I Proof 2.pdf


  • George, H. P., & Kincaid, D. K. (2008). Building district-level capacity for positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 20-32. doi:10.1177/1098300707311367

  • George, H. P., Kincaid, D., & Pollard-Sage, J. (2008). Primary-tier interventions and supports. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp.375-394). New York: Springer.

  • Golly, A. (2006). Five universal principles of positive behavior support and the story of my life. Verona, WI: IEP Resources.

  • Golly, A., Sprague, J., Walker, H. M., Beard, K., & Gorham, G. (2000). The First Step to Success program: An analysis of outcomes with identical twins across multiple baselines. Behavioral Disorders, 25(3), 170-182.

  • Golly, A., Stiller, B., & Walker, H. M. (1998). First Step to Success: Replication and social validation of an early intervention program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 6(4), 243-250.


  • Handler, M. W., Rey, J., Connell, J., Thier, K., Feinberg, A., & Putnam, R. (2007). Practical considerations in creating school-wide positive behavior support in public schools. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 29-39.

  • Harrower, J. K. (1999). Educational inclusion of children with severe disabilities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(4), 215-230. doi:10.1177/109830079900100404

  • Hawken, L. & Horner, R. (2003). Evaluation of a targeted group intervention within a school-wide system of behavior support. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12, 225-240.

  • Hawken, L. S. (2006). School psychologists as leaders in the implementation of a targeted intervention. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 91-111.

  • Hawken, L. S., Adolphson, S. L., Macleod, S., & Schumann, J. (2009). Secondary-tier interventions and supports. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 395-420). New York: Springer.

  • Hawken, L. S., & Horner, R.H. (2003). Evaluation of a targeted intervention within a schoolwide system of behavior support. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12(3), 225-240.

  • Hawken, L. S., MacLeod, K. S., & Rawlings, L. (2007). Effects of Behavior Education Program (BEP) on office discipline referrals of elementary school students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(2), 94-101.

  • Hawken, L. S., & O’Neil, R. (2006). Including students with severe disabilities in all levels of school-wide positive behavior support. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 46-53.

  • Hawken, L. S., O’Neil, R. E. & MacLeod, K. S. (2011). An investigation of the impact of function of problem behavior on the effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP). Education and Treatment of Children, 34(4), 551-574.

  • Hawken, L. S., Vincent, C. G., & Schumann, J. (2008). Response to intervention for social behavior: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 16, 213-225.

  • Hinton, L. M., & Kern, L. (1999). Increasing homework completion by incorporating student interests. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(4), 231-234. doi:10.1177/109830079900100405

  • Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2000). School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative (special issue). Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2, 231-233.

  • Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2001). "Data" need not be a four-letter word: Using data to improve schoolwide discipline. Beyond Behavior, 11(1), 20-22.

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42, 1-14.

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Horner, H. F. (2000). A school-wide approach to student discipline. The School Administrator, 2(57), 20-23.

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Todd, A. W. (2001). Teaching school-wide behavioral expectations. Report on Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 1(4), 77-79.

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A. W., & Esperanza, J. (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 133-144. doi:10.1177/1098300709332067

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2000). Elements of behavior support plans: A technical brief. Exceptionality, 8(3), 205-215.

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2005). Schoolwide positive behavior support. In L. M. Bambara & L. Kern (Eds.), Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors (pp. 359-390). New York: Guilford Press.

  • Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3-12. doi:10.1177/10983007040060010201

  • Hundert, J. P. (2007). Training classroom and resource preschool teachers to develop inclusive class interventions for children with disabilities: Generalization to new intervention targets. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(3), 159-173. doi:10.1177/10983007070090030401


  • Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P. E., Wang, W., Kincaid, D., Dunlap, D., & Strain, P. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) tertiary intervention for students with problem behaviors: Preliminary outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17(4), 213-225. DOI: 10.1177/1063426609337389

  • Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P., Wei, W., Kincaid, D., & Dunlap, G. (in review). Reliability of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale-Strategy for Teachers (IBRS-ST): A Progress Monitoring Tool. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  • Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA function-based and non-function-based intervention plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224-236. doi:10.1177/10983007050070040401

  • Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., Ingram, K., Todd, A., Sugai, G., Sampson, N. K., Boland, J. (2006). Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical evaluation of validity. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(1), 10-23.

  • Irvin, L. K., Sprague, J. R., Sugai, G., Tobin, T. J., Vincent, C. G. (2004). Validity of office discipline referral measures as indices of school-wide behavioral status and effects of school-wide behavioral interventions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 6(3), 131-147.


  • Johnson, J. W., McDonnell, J., Holzwarth, V. N., & Hunter, K. (2004). The efficacy of embedded instruction for students with developmental disabilities enrolled in general education classes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(4), 214-227. doi:10.1177/10983007040060040301

  • Jones, C., Caravaca, L., Cizek, S., Horner, R. H., & Vincent, C. G. (2006). Culturally responsive schoolwide positive behavior support: A case study in one school with a high proportion of Native American students. Multiple Voices 9(1), 108-119.


  • Kamps, D., Wendland, M., & Culpepper, M. (2006). Active teacher participation in functional behavior assessment for students with emotional and behavioral disorders risks in general education classrooms. Behavioral Disorders, 31, 128-146.

  • Kartub, D. T., Taylor-Greene, S., March, R. E., & Horner, R. H. (2000). Reducing hallway noise: A systems approach. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3), 179-182. doi:10.1177/109830070000200307

  • Kaufman, J. S., Jaser, S. S., Vaughan, E. L., Reynolds, J. S., Di Donato, J., Bernard, S. N., & Hernandez-Brereton, M. (2010). Patterns in office referral data by grade, race/ethnicity, and gender. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(1), 44-54. doi:10.1177/1098300708329710

  • Kay, S., Harchik, A. F., & Luiselli, J. K. (2006). Elimination of drooling by an adolescent student with Autism attending public high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(1), 24-28. doi:10.1177/10983007060080010401

  • Kellam, S. G., Ling. X., Merisca, R., Brown, C. H., & Ialong, N. (1998). The effect of the level of aggression in the first grade classroom on the course and malleability of aggressive behavior into middle school. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 165-185.

  • Kelm, J. L., & McIntosh, K. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavior support on teacher self-efficacy. Psychology in the Schools, 49, 137-147.

  • Kern, L., & Clemens, N. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 65-75.

  • Killu, K., Weber, K. P., Derby, K. M., & Barretto, A. (2006). Behavior intervention planning and implementation of positive behavioral support plans: An examination of states' adherence to standards for practice. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 195-200. doi:10.1177/10983007060080040201

  • Kincaid, D., Childs, K., Blasé, K. A., & Wallace, F. (2007). Identifying barriers and facilitators in implementing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(3), 174-184.

  • Kincaid, D., George, H. P., & Childs, K. (2006). Review of the positive behavior support training curriculum: Supervisory and direct support editions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(3), 183-188. doi:10.1177/10983007060080030701

  • Knoff, H. M. (2001). The stop and think social skills program teacher's manual. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

  • Knoster, T. P. (2000). Understanding the difference and relationship between functional behavioral assessments and manifestation determinations. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(1), 53-58. doi:10.1177/109830070000200108

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  • Sprick, R. (1998). CHAMPs: A Proactive Approach to Classroom Management. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.

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  • Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211. doi:10.1177/10983007060080040301

  • Steed, E. A., & Durand, V. M. (2012). Optimistic teaching: Improving the capacity for teachers to reduce young children's challenging behavior. School Mental Health. DOI 10.1007/s12310-012-9084-y

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  • Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 68-81. doi:10.1177/1098300708326597

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  • Storey, K., & Post, M. (2012). Positive behavior supports in classrooms and schools: Effective and practical strategies for teachers and other service providers. Charles C. Thomas Pub. Ltd.

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  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (1999). Discipline and behavioral support: Preferred processes and practices. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 10-22.

  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2000). Including the functional behavioral assessment technology in schools (invited special issue). Exceptionality, 8, 145-148.

  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2001). Features of effective behavior support at the district level. Beyond Behavior, 11(1), 16-19.

  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 24, 23-50.

  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School Psychology Review, 35, 245-259

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  • Sugai, G., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, R., Barrett, S., Lewis, T., Anderson, C., Bradley, R. ..., Simonsen, B. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Implementers' blueprint and self-assessment. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon

  • Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G. Hieneman, M., Lewis, T. J., Nelson, C. M., ... Wilcox, B. (2000). Applying positive behavioral support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2, 131-143.

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  • Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & McIntosh, K. (2008). Best practices in developing a broad scale system of support for school-wide positive behavior support. In A. Thomas & J. P. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V. (pp. 765-780) Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

  • Sugai, G., & Lewis, T. (1996). Preferred and promising practices for social skills instruction. Focus on Exceptional Children, 29(4), 1-16.

  • Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S. (2000). Overview of the functional behavioral assessment process. Exceptionality, 8, 149-160.

  • Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A., & Horner, R. H. (2001). School-wide evaluation tool. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

  • Sugai, G., Sprague, J. R., Horner, R. H., & Walker, H. M. (2000). Preventing school violence: The use of office discipline referrals to assess and monitor school-wide discipline interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 94-101.

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  • Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 99-112.

  • Taylor-Greene, S. J., & Kartub, D. T. (2000). Durable implementation of school-wide behavior support: The high five program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 233-234.

  • Tincani, M. (2009). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. TX: Prufrock Press, Inc.

  • Thomson, C., Brown, D., Jones, L., Walker, J., Moore, D. W., Anderson, A., ... Glynn, T. L. (2003). Resource teachers learning and behavior: Collaborative problem solving to support inclusion. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 101-111. doi:10.1177/10983007030050020501

  • Tillery, A. D., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., & Collins, A. S. (2010). General education teachers' perceptions of behavior management and intervention strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 86-102. doi:10.1177/1098300708330879

  • Tingstrom, D., Sterling-Turner, H. & Wilczynski, S. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior Modification, 30(2), 225-253.

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  • Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1996). Patterns in middle school discipline records. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(2), 82-94.

  • Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (2000). A guide to the creation and use of discipline referral graphs. NASSP Bulletin, 84(616), 106-117.

  • Todd, A. W., Campbell, A. L., Meyer, G. G., & Horner, R. H. (2008). The effects of a targeted intervention to reduce problem behaviors: Elementary school implementation of check in-check out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 46-55. doi:10.1177/1098300707311369

  • Todd, A. W., Haugen, L., Anderson, K., & Spriggs, M. (2002). Teaching recess: Low cost efforts producing effective results. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(1), 46-52.

  • Todd, A., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1999). Individualizing school-wide discipline for students with chronic problem behaviors: A team approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 72-82.

  • Todd, A., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Sprague, J. R. (1999). Effective behavior support: Strengthening school-wide systems through a team-based approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 23-37.

  • Todd, A., Horner, R., Vanater, S., & Schneider, C. (1995). Working together to make change: An example of positive behavior support for a student with traumatic brain injury. Education and Treatment of Children, 20, 23-33.

  • Turnbull, A., Edmonson, H., Griggs, P., Wickham, D., Sailor, W., Freeman, R., ... & Warren, J. (2002). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components. Exceptional Children 68(3), 377-402.

  • Turnbull, H. R., III, Wilcox, B. L., Stowe, M., & Turnbull, A. P. (2001). IDEA requirements for use of PBS: Guidelines for responsible agencies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 11-18. doi:10.1177/109830070100300103


  • Umbreit, J. (1995). Functional assessment and intervention in a regular classroom setting for the disruptive behavior of a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 20, 267-278.

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  • Utley, C. A., Kozleski, E., Smith, A., & Draper, I. L. (2002). Positive behavior support: A proactive strategy for minimizing behavior problems in urban multicultural youth. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Special Section on Urban Issues, 4(4), 196-207. doi:10.1177/10983007020040040301

  • Utley, C. A., & Sailor, W., (2002). Guest editorial: Positive behavior support and urban school improvement: A Special Section of The Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(4), 195.


  • Vaughn, B. J. (2006). The wave of SWPBS: Who is left behind? Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 66-69.

  • Vincent, C., Spaulding, S., & Tobin, T. J. (2010). A reexamination of the psychometric properties of the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 161-179. doi:10.1177/1098300709332345

  • Von Mizener, B. H., & Williams, R. L. (2009). The effects of student choices on academic performance. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 110-128. doi:10.1177/1098300708323372


  • Walker, B., & Cheney, D. (2012). The Sapr-pbis Manual: A team-based approach to implementing effective schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

  • Walker, B., Cheney, D., & Stage, S. (2009). The validity and reliability of the self-assessment and program review: Assessing school progress in schoolwide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 94-109. doi:10.1177/1098300708322445

  • Walker, B., Cheney, D., Stage, S., & Blum, C. (2005). Schoolwide screening and positive behavior supports: Identifying and supporting students at risk for school failure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 194-204. doi:10.1177/10983007050070040101

  • Walker, H. M. (1998). First Steps to prevent antisocial behavior. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30(4), 16-19.

  • Walker, H., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in public school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/Cole.

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  • Walker, H. M., Kavanagh, K., Stiller, B., Golly, A., Severson, H. H., & Feil, E. G. (1998). First Step to Success: An early intervention approach for preventing school antisocial behavior. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 6(2), 66-80.

  • Walker, H. M., & Severson, H. (1994). Replication of the systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD) procedure for the identification of at-risk children. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 66-78.

  • Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., Feil, E. G., Stiller, B., & Golly, A. (1998). First Step to Success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns. Psychology in the Schools, 35(3), 259-269.

  • Warren, J. S., Edmonson, H. M., Griggs, P., Lassen, S. R., McCart, A., Turnbull, A., & Sailor, W. (2003). Urban applications of school-wide positive behavior support: Critical issues and lessons learned. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 80-91. doi:10.1177/10983007030050020301

  • Webster-Stratton, C., Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., Newcomer, L.L. (2011). The Incredible Years teacher classroom management training: The methods and principles that support fidelity of training delivery. School Psychology Review, 40(4), 509-529.

  • Westerlund, D., Granucci, E. A., Gamache, P., & Clark, H. B. (2006). Effects of peer mentors on work-related performance of adolescents with behavioral and/or learning disabilities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 244-251. doi:10.1177/10983007060080040601


  • Young-Yon, L., Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (1999). Using an instructional intervention to reduce problem and off-task behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(4), 195-204.


School-wide PBS Tools

  • Anderson, C., Childs, K., Kincaid, D., Horner, R. H., George, H., Todd, A., Sampson, N., & Spaulding, S. (2010). Benchmarks for advanced tiers. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

  • Anderson, C., Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Sampson, N. (2007). Checklist for individual student systems. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

  • Anderson, C., Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H, Sugai, G., & Sampson N. K (2010). Individual student systems evaluation tool (Version 2.7). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.


  • Cohen, R., Kincaid, D., & Childs, K. (2007). Measuring school-wide positive behavior support implementation: Development and validation of the benchmarks of quality (BoQ). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9, 203-213.


  • Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Kincaid, D., Wilson, K., Christiansen, K., Strain, P., & English, C. (2010). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A school-based model of positive behavior support. Baltimore: Brookes.

  • Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Wilson, K., Kincaid, D., & Strain, P. (2010). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A standardized model of school-based behavioral intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 9-22.


  • Knoff, H. M. (2001). The stop and think social skills program teacher's manual. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.


  • Lewis, T. J., Scott, T. M., & Sugai, G. (1994). The problem behavior questionnaire: A teacher-based instrument to develop functional hypotheses of problem behavior in general education classrooms. Diagnostique, 19(2-3), 103-115.


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  • Sprague, J., Colvin, G., & Irvin, L. (1995). The Oregon School Safety Survey. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

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