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Systems Change: References


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Systems Change References


  • Ballard-Krishnan, S. A., McClure, L., Schmatz, B., Travnikar, B., Friedrich, G., & Nolan, M. (2003). The Michigan PBS initiative: Advancing the spirit of collaboration by including parents in the delivery of personnel development opportunities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 122-126. doi:10.1177/10983007030050020701

  • Bambara, L. M., Nonnemacher, S., & Kern, L. (2009). Sustaining school-based individualized positive behavior support: Perceived barriers and enablers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 161-176. doi:10.1177/1098300708330878

  • Barber, M., & Fullan, M. (2005). Tri-level development: Putting systems thinking into action. Education Weekly, 24(25), 34-35.

  • Barrett, S. B., Bradshaw, C. P., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2008). Maryland statewide PBIS initiative: Systems, evaluation, and next steps. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(2), 105-114. doi:10.1177/1098300707312541

  • Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law (2006, March). Way to go: School success for children with mental health care needs. Washington, DC.

  • Berman, P., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1976). Implementation of educational innovation. The Educational Forum , 3(40), 345-370.

  • Biglan, A. (2004). Contextualism and the development of effective prevention practices. Prevention Science, 5(1), 15-21.

  • Blonigen, B. A., Harbaugh, W. T., Singell, L. D., Horner, R. H., Irvin, L. K., & Smolkowski, K. S. (2008). Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) programs. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 5-19. doi:10.1177/1098300707311366


  • Carr, E. G. (2007). The expanding vision of positive behavior support: Research perspectives on happiness, helpfulness, hopefulness. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 3-14. doi:10.1177/10983007070090010201

  • Castro, F. G., Barrera, M., & Martinez, C. R. (2004). The cultural adaptation of prevention interventions: Resolving tensions between fidelity and fit. Prevention Science, 5(1), 41-45.

  • Crossland, K., Dunlap, G., Hewitt, B. C., & Neff, B. (2009). Delivering support in the foster care system. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 279-304). New York: Springer.


  • Duchnowski, A., & Kutash, K. (2009). Integrating PBS, mental health services, and family driven care. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 203-231). New York: Springer.

  • Dunlap, G., Hieneman, M., Knoster, T., Fox, L., Anderson, J., & Albin, R. W. (2000). Essential elements of inservice training in positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(1), 22-32. doi:10.1177/109830070000200104

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  • Earl, L., & Fullan, M. (2003). Using data in leadership for learning. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 383-394.

  • Eber, L., Nelson, C. M., & Miles, P. (1997). School-based wraparound for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Exceptional Children, 63, 539-555.


  • Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blasé, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Tampa, Florida.

  • Flay, B. R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R. F., Castro, F. G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., ... & Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention science, 6(3), 151-175.

  • Fox, L., Carta, J., Dunlap, G., Strain, P., & Hemmeter, M.L. (2010). Response to intervention and the pyramid model. Infants and Young Children, 23, 3-14.

  • Freeman, R., Eber, L., Anderson, C., Irvin, L., Bounds, M., Dunlap, G., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Building inclusive school cultures using school-wide PBS: Designing effective individual support systems for students with significant disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31, 4-17.

  • Freeman, R., Lohrmann, S., Irvin, L. K., Kincaid, D., Vossler, V., & Ferro, J. (2009). Systems change and the complementary roles of inservice and preservice training in school-wide positive behavior support (pp. 599-626). In G. Sugai, R. Horner, G. Dunlap, & W. Sailor (Eds.). Handbook of positive behavior support. Secaucus, NJ: Springer.

  • Freeman, R. Perrin, N., Irvin, L., Vincent, C., Newcomer, L., Moore, M., Anderson, S., Miller, D., Kimbrough, P., Little, A., Deegan, M., Rennells, K., & Farr Bond, K. (2009). Positive behavior support across the lifespan: Expanding the concept of statewide planning for large scale organizational cultural change. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.

  • Freeman, R., Smith, C., Zarcone, J., Kimbrough, P., Tieghi-Benet, M., Wickham, D., Reese, M., & Hine, K. (2005). Building a statewide plan for embedding positive behavior support in human service organizations. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(2), 109-119. doi:10.1177/10983007050070020501

  • Freeman, R. L., Smith, C. L., & Tieghi-Benet, M. (2003). Promoting implementation success through the use of continuous systems-level assessment strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 66-70. doi:10.1177/10983007030050020101

  • Frey, A. J., Park K. L., Browne-Ferrigno, T., & Korfhage, T. L. (2010). The social validity of program-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 222-235. doi:10.1177/109830070943723

  • Frey, A., & Walker, H. (2005). Education policy for children, youth, and families. In J. M. Jenson & M. W. Fraser (Eds.), Social policy for children and families: A risk and resilience perspective (pp. 67-81). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/5976_Chapter_3_Jenson_Fraser__I_Proof_2.pdf

  • Friedman, S. R., Reynold, J., Quan, M. A., Call., S., Crusto, C. A. & Kaufman, J. S. (2007). Measuring changes in interagency collaboration: An examination of the Bridgeport Safe Start Initiative. Evaluation and Program Planning 30, 294-306.

  • Fullan, M. (1999). Change forces: The sequel. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

  • Fullan, M. (2003). Change forces with a vengeance. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

  • Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.


  • George, H. P., & Kincaid, D. K. (2008). Building district-level capacity for positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 20-32. doi:10.1177/1098300707311367

  • Gersten, R., Chard, D. J., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 445-457.

  • Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., MacFarlane, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations. The Milbank Quarterly, 82(4), 581-629.


  • Harrower, J. K. (1999). Educational inclusion of children with severe disabilities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(4), 215-230. doi:10.1177/109830079900100404

  • Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2009). The Teaching Pyramid: A model for the implementation of classroom practices within a program-wide approach to behavior support. NHSA Dialogue, 12(2), 133-147.

  • Hemmeter, M. L., Santos, R., & Ostrosky, M. (2008). A national survey of higher education programs: Preparing early childhood educators to address social emotional development and challenging behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 30(4), 321-340.

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42, 1-14.

  • Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3-12. doi:10.1177/10983007040060010201

  • Howard, B., & Gould, K. E. (2000). Strategic planning for employee happiness: A business goal for human service organizations. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 105, 377-386.


  • Kartub, D. T., Taylor-Greene, S., March, R. E., & Horner, R. H. (2000). Reducing hallway noise: A systems approach. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3), 179-182. doi:10.1177/109830070000200307

  • Kataoka, S. H., Rowan, B., & Hoagwood, K. E. (2009). Bridging the divide: In search of common ground in mental health and education research and policy. Psychiatric Services, 60(11), 1510-15.
    http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/60/11/1510

  • Kellam, S., & Langevin, D. (2003). A framework for understanding “evidence” in prevention research and programs. Prevention Science, 4, 137-153.

  • Killu, K., Weber, K. P., Derby, K. M., & Barretto, A. (2006). Behavior intervention planning and implementation of positive behavioral support plans: An examination of states' adherence to standards for practice. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 195-200. doi:10.1177/10983007060080040201

  • Kincaid, D., George, H. P., & Childs, K. (2006). Review of the positive behavior support training curriculum: Supervisory and direct support editions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(3), 183-188. doi:10.1177/10983007060080030701

  • Kitson, A., Harvey, G., & McCormack, B. (1998). Enabling the implementation of evidence based practice: A conceptual framework. Quality in Health Care, 7(3), 149-158.

  • Klingner, J. K., Agweem S., Pilonieta, P., & Menendes, R. (2003). Barriers and facilitators in scaling up research-based practices. Council for Exceptional Children, 69(4), 411-429.

  • Knight, J. (1998). Do schools have learning disabilities? Focus on Exceptional Children, 30(9), 1-14.

  • Knoster, T., Anderson, J., Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Emerging challenges and opportunities: Introducing the association for positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(3), 183-186. doi:10.1177/10983007030050030801

  • Kraemer, B. R., Cook, C. R., Browning-Wright, D., Mayer, G. R., & Wallace, M. D. (2008). Effects of training on the use of the behavior support plan quality evaluation guide with autism educators. A preliminary investigation examining positive behavior support plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 179-189. doi:10.1177/1098300708318796


  • Latham, G. (1988). The Birth and Death Cycles of Educational Innovations. Principal, 68(1), 41-43.

  • Lemke, J. & Sabelli, N. (2008). Complex systems and educational change: Towards a new research agenda. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40(1), 118-129.


  • Mass-Galloway, R. L., Panyan, M. V., Smith, C. R., & Wessendorf, S. (2008). Systems change with school-wide positive behavior supports: Iowa's work in progress. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(2), 129-135. doi:10.1177/1098300707312545

  • McIntosh, K., Filter, K. J., Bennett, J., Ryan, C., & Sugai, G. (2010). Principles of sustainable prevention: Designing scale-up of school-wide positive behavior support to promote durable systems. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 5-21.

  • McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2009). Sustainability of systems-level evidence-based practices in schools: Current knowledge and future directions. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 327-352). New York: Springer.

  • Moore, M., Freeman, R., & Jackson, D. (2006). Supporting individual PBS planning at a statewide level for community-based services. TASH Connections, 32-35.

  • Moore, M., Freeman, R., & Johnston, C. D. (2005). Building a collaborative statewide planning network in positive behavior support (PBS) for community-based services. Association for Positive Behavior Support Newsletter, 3(3), 1-4.

  • Morin, J. E. (2001). Winning over the resistant teacher. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 62-64. doi:10.1177/109830070100300110

  • Muscott, H. S., Mann, E. L., & LeBrun, M. R. (2008). Positive behavioral interventions and supports in New Hampshire. Effects of large-scale implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support on student discipline and academic achievement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 190-205. doi:10.1177/1098300708316258


  • Nolan, T. W. (2007). Execution of strategic improvement initiatives to produce system-level results. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement.


  • O’Neill, R. E., Johnson, J. W., Kiefer-O'Donnell, R., & McDonnell, J. J. (2001). Preparing teachers and consultants for the challenge of severe problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(2), 101-108. doi:10.1177/109830070100300207


  • Powell, D., Fixsen, D., Dunlap, G., Smith, B., & Fox, L. (2007). A synthesis of knowledge relevant to service utilization and delivery for young children with or at risk of challenging behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 29, 81-106.


  • Reid, D. H., Rotholz, D. A., Parsons, M. B., Morris, L., Braswell, B. A., Green, C. W., & Schell, R. M. (2003). Training human service supervisors in aspects of PBS: Evaluation of a statewide, performance-based program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 35-46. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010601


  • Sadler, C., & Sugai, G. (2009). Effective behavior and instructional support: A district model for early identification and prevention of reading and behavior problems. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 35-46. doi:10.1177/1098300708322444

  • Sailor, W. (2003). Implications of federal and state devolution policy for inclusion whole school success and inclusive education: Building partnerships for learning, achievement and accountability. New York: Teachers Press College.

  • Schalock, R. L., Brown, I., Brown, R., Cummins, R. A., Felce, D., Matikka, L., ... Parmenter, T. (2002). Conceptualization, measurement, and application of quality of life for persons with intellectual disabilities: Results of an international panel of experts. Mental Retardation, 40(6), 457-470.

  • Schalock, R. L., Gardner, J. F., & Bradley, V. J. (2007). Quality of life across individuals, organizations, systems, and the community. Washington, DC: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

  • Schalock, R. L., & Verdugo, M. A. (2012). A leadership guide for today's disabilities organizations: Overcoming challenges and making change happen. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

  • Scott, T. M., Mclntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., Conroy, M., & Payne, L. D. (2005). An examination of the relation between functional behavior assessment and selected intervention strategies with school-based teams. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 205-215. doi:10.1177/10983007050070040201

  • Scott, T. M., Nelson, C. M., & Zabala, J. (2003). Functional behavior assessment training in public schools: Facilitating systemic change. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 216-224. doi:10.1177/10983007030050040501

  • Senge, P. M., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R. B., & Smith, B. J. (1994). The fifth discipline fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learning organization. New York, NY: Currency Doubleday.

  • Senge, P., Schwarmer, C. O., Jaworski, J. & Flowers, B. S. (2004). Presence: An exploration of profound change in people, organizations, and society. New York, NY: Currency Doubleday.

  • Smith, M. L., & Heflin, L. J. (2001). Supporting positive behavior in public schools: An intervention program in Georgia. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 39-47. doi:10.1177/109830070100300106

  • Smith, T., Parker, T., Taubman, M., & Lovaas, O. I. (1992). Transfer of staff training from workshops to group homes: A failure to generalize across settings. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13, 57-71.

  • Stormont, M., Lewis, T. J., & Beckner, R. (2005). Positive behavior support systems: Applying key features in preschool settings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 37, 42-49.

  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Responsiveness-to-intervention and school-wide positive behavior supports: Integration of multi-tiered system approaches. Exceptionality, 17, 223-237.DOI: 10.1080/09362830903235375

  • Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & Gresham, F. M. (2002). Behaviorally effective school environments. In Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches, (pp. 315-350). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

  • Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & McIntosh, K. (2008). Best practices in developing a broad scale system of support for school-wide positive behavior support. In A. Thomas, & J. P. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.


  • Turnbull, H. R., III, Wilcox, B. L., Stowe, M., Raper, C., & Hedges, L. P. (2000). Public policy foundations for positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 218-230. doi:10.1177/109830070000200406

  • Turnbull, H. R., III, Wilcox, B. L., Stowe, M., & Turnbull, A. P. (2001). IDEA requirements for use of PBS: Guidelines for responsible agencies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 11-18. doi:10.1177/109830070100300103


  • Vaughn, S., Klingner, J., & Hughes, M. A. R. I. E. (2000). Sustainability of research-based practices. Exceptional Children, 66(2), 163-172.


  • Wacker, D. P., & Berg, W. K. (2002). PBS as a service delivery system. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(1), 25-28. doi:10.1177/109830070200400105

  • Walker, B., Cheney, D., & Stage, S. (2009). The validity and reliability of the self-assessment and program review: Assessing school progress in schoolwide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 94-109. doi:10.1177/1098300708322445


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